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Development history of rubber machinery and equipment

Edit: John 2020-02-24

  In the modern process of human society development. The rubber industry is also an indispensable economic industry. In the development of the rubber industry, the advancement and development of rubber technology and rubber machinery (or electromechanical) technology has played an important role. The development of the rubber industry, rubber industry technology and rubber machinery technology constitute the entire technical process and industrial technology system of rubber products. In 1820 Britain made a single-roller rubber mill driven by humans. In 1826, a double-roller open rubber mill was put into production, which opened the prelude to the production of human rubber machinery. So far, the application of rubber machinery in human society has a history of more than 180 years.


  Since 1839. A series of rubber machinery and equipment came out one after another. In addition to vulcanization equipment that is suitable for the application of rubber vulcanization technology, other rubber machinery, such as plunger hose extruder (1858), screw extruder (1879), rubber calender ( 1843 ~ 1900), closed rubber mixer (1916). And other rubber machinery and equipment. It has been invested in the production process of the rubber industry at that time, which has played a certain role in promoting the development of the rubber industry.

  In 1904, the discovery of lead oxide, magnesium oxide and other inorganic vulcanizing agents, especially the discovery and application of organic vulcanization accelerators D and M in 1919, further promoted the improvement of production efficiency, greatly improved the performance of rubber products, and expanded Use range. Carbon black was added to rubber in 1920, so that the performance of rubber products could be improved and improved. Therefore, the application of carbon black has promoted the progress and comprehensive development of the rubber industry. At the beginning of the 20th century and the middle of the 20th century, the Soviet Union, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, France and other countries have invented the synthetic rubber industry technology. And established a series of rubber synthetic production equipment and factories. Coupled with the large-scale production of natural rubber resources in Southeast Asia, it has opened up a material resource base for the comprehensive development of human modern rubber industry.

  Rubber is a typical material with high elasticity. Its physical properties are very complex. Processing and forming of most rubber. Both have similar melt flow and deformation processes, and are in the processing of rubber products. Raw rubber must pass through the process of plasticizing, mixing, molding, molding, and vulcanization before it can become a product. In modern industrial products. The production of materials such as rubber, plastics, paints, fibers, lubricants, ceramics, and the application of engineering technology, the complex mechanical properties of their materials. Based on simple elasticity, viscosity theory or plasticity theory. None of them can meet the deformation requirements of these materials during processing. Therefore, a research project based on the mechanical properties of complex media, the rheology theory, mentioned the agenda of new human studies. In 1928, the United States established the "Rheological Society", and in 1940, the United Kingdom established the Rheology Club (later changed to the Rheology Society). In addition, the Netherlands, West Germany, France, Japan and other countries have also established rheological societies. The International Society of Rheology was convened in 1948. The International Rheological Association was established in 1953. Ever since. A marginal discipline involving applied mathematics, physics, elastic mechanics, material mechanics, fluid mechanics, geology, engineering, and other disciplines-rheology emerged at the historic moment, and has gradually been widely used. Rheology is not only widely used in industrial production of rubber, plastics, coatings, printing, silicates, foods, etc., but also involves many industrial sectors such as infrastructure, machinery, transportation, water conservancy, chemical industry: many substances The process from solid to liquid. Rheology in the rubber industry. It is widely used in the research and application of rubber products processing. Such as rubber mixing, calendering, extrusion, injection molding and other processing processes. Because of its macromolecular chain structure and motion characteristics, the polymer exhibits four physical states in the physical aggregate state: one crystalline state and three amorphous states (glassy, highly elastic, and viscous fluid). . Rubber is highly elastic under normal use. However, it is in a viscous flow state during processing and molding. It loses fluidity only after vulcanization treatment, and becomes an elastomer material mainly based on high elasticity.

  Since the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the principles of rubber process theory have been explored and invented. Especially the research and application of rheology theory. As a result, the development of the rubber industry has undergone profound changes, both in terms of fillers, vulcanization accelerators, and process principles. There has been a qualitative change in the development of the rubber industry. At the same time, various rubber machinery has also made great progress and development. At that time, rubber machinery not only had many names, but also its structure, specifications, and varieties reached a certain level of scale, refinement, automation, and linkage. If there is a rubber mechanical transmission power of hundreds of dry watts to thousands of kilowatts. The weight of the machine reaches several hundred tons. In the rubber product production process of plasticizing, mixing, calendering, extrusion, molding, vulcanization six processes. Have a complete set of mechanical devices.

  Rubber mixing machinery is one of the basic equipment of the rubber industry. There are currently dozens of open-type rubber mixing machines. It is mainly used for plasticizing of raw rubber and mixing of rubber materials; tablet press is used for tabletting and rubber supply: hot mill is mainly used for rubber preheating and rubber supply: crusher is used for crushing of natural rubber, etc. Washing machine is used to remove impurities in raw rubber and waste rubber: Crusher is mainly used for crushing waste rubber blocks: Refining machine is mainly used to remove hard impurities in recycled rubber; recycled rubber mixer is mainly used for recycled rubber Kneading: Tobacco rubber tablet press is used for tobacco film tabletting, etc .; Crepe tablet press is mainly used for crepe tablet tableting work: experimental rubber mixer. It is mainly used for experimental work of various small amounts of rubber.

  The rubber calender is also one of the basic equipment in the processing of rubber products. Since the application of the three-roll calender in 1843, it has a history of more than 160 years. Various calenders of different specifications and new types have emerged from modern times to modern times. Its large specifications, fast speed, high precision of semi-finished products, and high degree of machine automation have become the main structural features of modern calendering machinery. At present, the largest scale of rolling mills produced has reached φ1055 × 3000 mm and the linear speed of the rollers is as high as 120 meters per minute or more. The thickness error of the rolled semi-finished products has reached within ± 0.0025 mm. And reach the level of automation using electronic computers and full-process control.

  The closed rubber mixer (referred to as the internal mixer) is one of the main equipments for plasticizing and mixing rubber. The development of modern mixers has the characteristics of high speed, high pressure and high efficiency, and is divided into low speed (rotor speed is 20 rpm), medium speed (speed 30 to 40 rpm) and high speed (speed 60 rpm / Minute) 3 kinds. In recent years, high-speed mixers with speeds above 80 rpm have also appeared.

  Rubber extruder (screw extruder). Since the birth of the world's first screw extruder in 1879, various forms of screw extrusion machinery have appeared in large numbers. Different specifications and varieties have been fully equipped and have been adapted to different product performance characteristics. Claim. Such as extrusion extruder, mainly used for the production of semi-finished products with various cross-section shapes; filter rubber extruder, used to remove impurities in mixed rubber and raw rubber; plastic extruder, used for continuous plastic raw rubber Refining: pelletizing extruder for pelletizing rubber and raw rubber; tabletting extruder. For tabletting of rubber materials; desulfurization extruder for desulfurization of recycled rubber: extrusion dehydration extruder for dehydration and drying of synthetic rubber and recycled rubber: cable extruder for overmolding of cables; exhaust Gas extruder. It is used to exhaust air and moisture mixed with rubber compounds and low molecular volatiles. These complete specifications of extrusion machinery have contributed to the development of the rubber industry. Become one of the power and preferred equipment for processing various rubber products. Injection molding machines, also known as injection presses, are mainly used to produce various rubber molded products. According to its structure, injection molding machinery is divided into 4 types: horizontal injection press, vertical injection press, angle injection press and multi-station injection press. Each type of injection press is divided into many different specifications and sizes.

  Tires are the largest product in the rubber industry. Regardless of the amount of rubber raw materials and the production of rubber products. It all occupies most of the rubber product market and consumes about 80% of rubber resources. Therefore, tire building machinery is also very important. Since the invention of pneumatic tires in 1888, with the development of the automobile industry, a large number of rubber tires of various specifications and performance have emerged. A high-performance, high-quality car without the corresponding performance and quality tire support is equivalent to scrap iron. The development of the tire industry. The involvement of tire building machinery is also crucial. Whether it is an inner tube or an outer tube. They all need a certain forming machinery mold to shape. In particular, the forming of tires is the core process in the production of tires. It is the assembly process of various "components" of tires. . Therefore, the tire building machinery largely determines the performance and quality of the tire. With the progress and development of human society, economy and culture, a large number of various vehicles have emerged. Therefore, various types and specifications of tires are emerging. Such as cars, buses, trucks, engineering vehicles and various other special vehicles and aircraft, have their own special tire varieties and specifications. In recent years, high-strength and high-wear-resistance steel-frame radial tires have appeared, making the structural performance and quality of automobile tires a new level. This has continuously put forward higher requirements for tire building machinery.

  There are many types of tire building machines. According to the molding methods, there are two types: sleeve method and layer bonding method. According to the contour of the forming drum, there are four types: drum type, half drum type, core wheel type and half core wheel type. In addition, all other rubber products of different shapes and uses basically have a molding process. therefore. A variety of rubber products molding machines are full of variety and variety. There are tens of thousands of different types of seals alone. It can be seen that the molding machinery of the rubber industry is also very complicated and extremely important.

  Vulcanization machinery is the last process of various rubber products. It is mainly used for vulcanization of various rubber products, tapes, rubber sheets and other products. Its main structure has three forms: one is a flat vulcanizing machine, the other is a vulcanizing tank (including a hydraulic vulcanizing tank) and a drum vulcanizing machine. Flat vulcanizers have a wide range of uses and many types. In addition to being directly used for the vulcanization of rubber products, it can also be used for the compression processing of thermosetting plastics or thermoplastics in the plastics industry. Because their working principle and body structure are basically the same. There are many types and forms. According to the purpose, there are generally flat vulcanizing machines for rubber model products, flat vulcanizing machines for flat belts, flat vulcanizing machines for rubber belts, and vulcanizing machines for rubber plates. Vulcanization tank is one of the earliest vulcanization equipment used in the production of rubber products. Mainly used for vulcanization of rubber products. The vulcanization tank can also be used to vulcanize soles, rubberized cloth and model products. Therefore, it is called "universal" vulcanizing machine. There are two types of drum vulcanizers: "flat belt" and "triangular belt". It is mainly used to vulcanize thin rubber sheet products with special requirements on surface shape and surface quality, such as patterned rubber sheets, printing rubber sheets, and printing and dyeing guide belts. If equipped with necessary accessories, it can also be used for vulcanization of vulcanized conveyor belts, transmission belts and other similar rubber products. The drum vulcanizer can be continuously vulcanized, and it is easy to realize automation and form a production line. Greatly reduce labor intensity, improve work efficiency and product quality.

  For the development of the rubber industry, mechanical technology and process research determine its development speed and level, as well as its performance and quality. In general, the frequency of periodic changes in industrial and product technology research is faster. The change cycle of mechanical technology is slower. Its cycle change determines the service life, working efficiency and product quality of machinery and equipment. It is precisely because the machine equipment has a clear service life that it has a certain operating inertia. Thus giving people a direct feeling that is not easy to change or does not need to change quickly. This is also the cause of many people in the real world. Even some scientific research departments only attach great importance to the innovation and change of process technology. One of the main reasons for neglecting the progress and development of mechanical technology. People's consciousness is to determine the change and development of behavior. Production of any material product. First of all, it originated from the objective demand for production practice in the real society.

  For the development of the rubber industry, it is not only the normal production process of rubber products. More and more in-depth research and coordinated development of mechanical technology and process technology are needed. The competitive situation of the modern commodity market does not allow people to wait and see or delay the time. In addition to the increasing abundance of human material and cultural life, the rapid development of rubber industry is required In addition, a large amount of waste rubber products piled up in a mountain are also urgently needed for people to face and effectively dispose of. This is not only the need to save rubber resources, but also the requirement to protect human living environment. To solve the normal development of the rubber industry and the recycling of waste rubber resources, only the coordinated development of mechanical technology and process technology can achieve the purpose. The development of the contemporary rubber industry has enabled the recycling of waste rubber resources. We must take the road of joint development of machine improvement and chemical progress. Is the only correct way. The improvement of machinery is one of the essential tasks of mechanical technology, and the progress of chemistry is the core content of process technology. Their joint development is also the inherent driving force for the rapid and efficient development of modern rubber industry. Of course, it also includes the decision-making organizational factors of scientific management technology.

  The four basic technologies of machinery, physics, chemistry (or chemical engineering), and biology constitute the natural science and technology system for the development of human society and are called hard science and technology systems, while social management technology is the soft science and technology system. The soft and hard combination of the two. Become a relatively complete science and technology system. The development of the rubber industry is also related to the industrial economic structure of the combination of rubber industry technology and industrial scientific management technology. It is a scientific measure that reflects the "soft and hard" of the development of the rubber industry. Mechanical technology is a hard attribute technology. Process technology belongs to soft attribute technology, which is a kind of "soft and hard" technique.

  In mechanical technology. There are software and hard attributes. All the work that belongs to the investigation and design and technical methods are soft attribute technology; all the technologies related to construction and manufacturing belong to the hard attribute technology. The results of the early soft technology are mainly reflected in the design and construction drawings and instructions: Hard technical achievements focus on the output of various material products. This is also an objective process of the transformation of soft and hard technologies. The development of the rubber industry must attach importance to the coordinated development of mechanical technology and process technology. Strengthening the role of rubber machinery technology and attaching importance to the development and application of machinery technology are not only the needs of the entire society to develop the production of material and cultural products. It is also the need for the harmonious development of human ecological environment, and it is also the need to cherish, use cleverly and thrifty rubber.